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How a Bill, or proposed Bill, becomes an Act

Learn how Bills get proposed, progress through the Parliament and become law.


Government Bill

A Government Bill is introduced by a Scottish Government minister. 


The Scottish Government presents the Bill to the Scottish Parliament. The Scottish Government also give additional information in:

  • a Financial Memorandum (to set out the expected costs of the Bill)
  • Explanatory Notes (to explain the legal effect of the Bill)
  • a Policy Memorandum (to explain why the Bill is being proposed)
  • a statement on legislative competence (to say that the Scottish Government believes that the changes to the law are changes that the Parliament has the power to make)

If a Government Bill includes any “delegated powers”, a Delegated Powers Memorandum is needed to explain why. Delegated powers include powers given to Scottish Ministers to make new law, or change existing law, without this needing another Bill. 

Stage 1 (general principles)  

The Bill is given to a lead committee. This is usually the committee whose remit most closely relates to the subject of the Bill. Other committees can also look at the Bill. These committees report to the lead committee. 

The lead committee is responsible for examining the Bill. It hears from experts, organisations, and members of the public about what the Bill would do. It then writes a report about what it has heard and giving its own view of the Bill. This Stage 1 report usually makes a recommendation about whether the Parliament should support the main purpose of the Bill (the "general principles"). All of this may take a few months.

The Parliament then debates the Bill and decides whether it should go on to Stage 2, or be rejected.

Stage 2 (amendments) 

MSPs can propose changes to a Bill – these are called ”amendments”. Any MSP can suggest amendments. The amendments are debated and decided on at a meeting of a committee (usually the same committee that was the lead committee at Stage 1). Only the committee members can vote on amendments at this stage.

If any amendments are agreed to at Stage 2, a new (amended) version of the Bill is published. This is the version considered at Stage 3.

Stage 3 (amendments, debate and final vote) 

MSPs can propose further amendments to the Bill. These are debated and decided on in the Debating Chamber, and at this stage all MSPs can vote on them. There is then a debate and vote on whether to pass the Bill. If the Bill is not passed, it falls and can’t become law. 

Turning the Bill into an Act 

If the Bill is passed, it is normally sent for Royal Assent after about 4 weeks. Royal Assent is when the Bill gets formal agreement by the King and becomes an Act of the Scottish Parliament.

Some Acts become law straight after Royal Assent. Some only become law on a later date. Sometimes different bits of the same Act become law on different dates.

See all Acts of the Scottish Parliament. 

Budget Bill

Every year, a Budget Bill is introduced by the Scottish Government. It authorises public spending for a financial year (1 April to 31 March). It follows a slightly different parliamentary procedure from other Public Bills.  

A Budget Bill can only be introduced by a Scottish minister. 

A Budget Bill does not need: 

  • a Financial Memorandum
  • Explanatory Notes 
  • a Policy Memorandum
  • a parliament committee to report on the Bill’s general principles

Any amendments to a Budget Bill can only be proposed by a Scottish Government minister.

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Members' Bill